„Nomos. Czasopismo Religioznawcze” to naukowy periodyk powstały w 1991 roku (w latach 1991-2012 ukazywał się jako „Nomos. Kwartalnik Religioznawczy”), wydawany przez Instytut Religioznawstwa Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego.

Redaktor naczelny: dr hab. Henryk Hoffmann, prof. UJ
Sekretarz redakcji: mgr Anna Książek


W numerze:

Михаил Баканов, О сущности и происхождении символов.

Михаил Черенков, Феноменология религии и ее богословские перспективы.

Мария Чикарькова, Проблема изучения библейского антропоцентризма как фактора становления европейской культуры.

Татьяна А. Фолиева, Религиозная социализация и воспитание в  трактовке советских религиоведов.

Георгий Филипович, Украинские церкви в диаспоре перед вызовами глобализованной эпохи.

Игорь П. Гудыма, Новые грани восприятия религии и чуда в  религиозно-теологической системе Артура Пикока.

Zbigniew Łagosz, Cthulhu – mitopeja czy nowa forma systemu magicznego?

Michał Łuczyński, Językowo-kulturowy obraz Jaryły~Jarowita (próba rekonstrukcji).

Kazimiera Mikoś, Koreański muizm a  problemy z  definiowaniem szamanizmu.

Agata Świerzowska, Kilka uwag na marginesie The Vth International Seminar on Sacred Places: Cosmological Power and Environmental Issues, 5-7 February 2013 (Allahabad).

Daria Trela, Koneksje współczesnej literatury fantastycznej z  mitycznymi przestrzeniami infernalnymi.

David Václavík, Multidimensional secularization in Central and Eastern Europe.

Mikhail Bakanov

                                   ON THE ESSENCE AND ORIGIN OF SYMBOLS

The term “symbol” (Greek
σύμβολον) has no a clear scientific definition. The problem is that its interpretation is somewhere at the intersection of science, religion, mysticism, and overly magical beliefs. Moreover, symbols are often used in a polysemantic sense. It would be a mistake to say that symbolism forms a complex system with a strong and unshakable basis. The medieval secret societies showed that ancient symbols could receive not only a new interpretation, but in some cases even completely different meanings. Ambiguity and myriad ways of interpretation of symbols make it difficult to create a clear and uniform scientific classification and systematization, as understanding of a symbol cannot be re-stricted. In conclusion, we point to the fact that modern science is unfortunately far from providing a clear answer to the question about the nature and origin of symbols. Nevertheless, symbols have a great impact upon human consciousness and are often used for this purpose, even though only some people are fully aware of this mechanism.

Keywords: symbol, swastika, cross, hexagram, astrology, Bible, secret societies, Nüwa, Fu Xi.

Mykhailo Cherenkov


This paper analyzes the possibility of a phenomenological approach to religion after metaphysics. The author argues that the philosophy of religion persists in the phenomenology of religion, and that the latter takes the form of the phenomenology of revelation, in which the religious phenomenon is replaced by the disclosing of its object-subject correlation. With respect to the phenomenological philosophy of religion and theology, the author attempts to overcome the subject-object cognitive dichotomy by a theoretical formulation of subject-subject relations complemented by personal knowledge.

Keywords: phenomenology, Revelation, religion, theology, knowledge, the self.

Mariia Chikarkova


This article analyzes the problem of the origin of anthropocentric biblical consciousness and its impact on such concepts as “humanism”, “historicism”, and “rationalism”, which had developed during the Enlightenment, and which, in post-modern reality, are subject to further transformations. Currently, one can distinguish two (main) concepts of anthropo-centrism: secular – rooted in the pagan worldview, and Christian – emerging from of the biblical view of human being as the image of the Creator obstructed by sin. The Bible still (as it did in the past) remains an important factor in the shaping of contemporary European culture.

Keywords: The Bible, anthropocentrism, humanism, myth and Logos, the concept of personality.

Tatiana A. Folieva

                                      OF SOVIET RELIGIOUS STUDIES SCHOLARS

Religious socialization and religious education often attract the attention of researchers. Alas, while studying these phenomena the Russian scholars often rely on results of foreign researchers in this matter, ignoring the rich Soviet tradition. In this paper the author considers the major works of Soviet authors who undertook the analysis of such problems as “religious renewal”, “religious family”, “religious socialization” and “religious education”. The use of projective techniques, the question and mechanism of learning through imitation, the periodization of the socialization process based on cognitive development, the problem of “neutral” (non-religious) families, including secondary religious socialization and religious upbringing of young people – are the main topics discussed by the Soviet scholars. The results of these studies may be relevant and important for contemporary researchers.

Keywords: socialization, religious socialization, history of science, history of religious studies, science in the Soviet Union.

Georgii Fylypovich

                                       UKRAINIAN CHURCHES IN THE DIASPORA:

This paper discusses a variety of problems faced by Ukrainian parish churches in the diaspora. In subsequent sections, the author analyzes different activities and forms of ministry carried out among ethnic Ukrainians living abroad permanently and those who are migrant workers. In the analysis the author paid particular attention to the last wave of immigrants from Ukraine and the related challenges faced by the parish churches in Ukrainian diaspora.

Keywords: ethnic Ukrainians, migrant workers, identification, ethnic and religious identity, Ukrainian diaspora, parish churches in the diaspora.

Igor P. Gudyma


This article attempts to analyze a specific way of explaining miracle in the theology of Arthur Peacocke (1924-2006). First, the intimate connection between faith and miracles is established, and next, the role of the miracle in theology is investigated.

Keywords: God, theology, science, miracle, the laws of nature.

Zbigniew Łagosz

                              CTHULHU – MITOPEJA OR A NEW FORM OF MAGIC?

This article is an attempt to answer two fundamental questions: First, what is the Cthulhu mythos? And second, were H.P. Lovercraft’s (1890-1937) works intended to form a kind of a magical system? Analysis of both his books and the works of his followers brings us only partially to the magical world that always remains inspiring and unfathomable. Magic based on the content of Cthulhu mythology appears in many magical incantations, but also a well-known systems referring to magic, such as, for example, Satanism of LaVey.

Keywords: Cthulhu mythos, Lovecraftian magic, systems magic, secret orders.

Michał Łuczyński

                                             (AN ATTEMPT AT RECONSTRUCTION)

The author of the article attempts to reconstruct a fragment of the traditional spiritual culture of the Slavs by analyzing the myth of Jarylo-Jarovit, who is a male deity in Old-Slavic pagan pantheon. The sources used in the study include: historical and ethnographic accounts, archaeological findings, linguistic data, and comparative mythology.

Keywords: History of religion, Slavic mythology, folkloristics, ethnolinguistics, linguistic
and cultural picture of the world.

Kazimiera Mikoś


The indigenous religious tradition of Koreans, described by both Western and Korean re-searchers as muism, was already characterized as shamanism at the turn of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. There are however some doubts as to whether calling muism shamanism can be justified, and they arose in the second half of the twentieth century, particularly when Korean scholars of muism became familiar with M. Eliade’s book Shamanism: Archaic Techniques of Ecstasy (1964). The first section of the article presents general characteristics of the indigenous religious tradition of the Korean people, with particular attention to the muism phenomenon and to the definition of shamanism. In the second part, the author focuses on the impact of Eliade’s definition of shamanism in questioning whether muism qualifies as shamanism, and the resulting consequences. In the concluding section similarly important issues are addressed as: 1) the specific role of Eliade’s book Shamanism in the context of the scholarly discussion concerning muism, which compels us to reconsider the usefulness of the grand syntheses in religious studies; 2) the discrepancy of opinions among researchers regarding muism; 3) gains ensuing from attempts to define the object of a study, even if such definitions do not receive general approval: and 4) expres-sions of patriotism in science, and the question of the objectivity of scientific research.

Keywords: muism, shamanism, religion in Korea, Eliade, study of religion in Korea,

Agata Świerzowska

                                                         A FEW REMARKS IN PASSING:                     
                                  THE 5th INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR ON SACRED PLACE 
                                                     5-7 FEBRUARY 2013  (ALLAHABAD)

The paper is an account of the 5th International Seminar on Sacred Places: Cosmological Power and Environmental Issues, which was held in Allahabad, India, on 5-7 February 2013, organized by The Society of Pilgrimage Studies, Allahabad University. In fact, the seminar was organized in connection to one of the holiest Hindu religious festivals – Maha Kumbha Mela, which is held every twelfth year at Allahabad. No doubt, this is the largest religious festival in the world, attracting more than 40 million pilgrims from all over the world. The main goal of all pilgrims coming to the festival is to bathe in sangam – the place of confluence of the three holy rivers – Ganga, Yamuna, and the invisible Saraswati. The participants of the seminar focused on two main issues: first, the cosmological power of sacred places which, due to the supernatural qualities ascribed to them, become frequented pilgrimage sites, and second, environmental issues at sacred places resulting from pilgrimage activity. The seminar gathered scholars representing various disciplines and academic milieus around the world. The Jagiellonian University was represented by Prof. Marta Kudelska and Agata Świerzowska, Ph.D (The Centre for Comparative Studies of Civiliza-

Keywords: Kumbha Mela, pilgrimage, Allahabad, Ganga, Triveni, Sangam, Prayaga.

Daria Trela
                                      CONNECTIONS OF CONTEMPORARY FANTASY 
                                  LITERATURE WITH MYTHICAL INFERNAL SPACES

The article argues a point that contemporary fantasy novels contain visions of hell stemming from various cultural and historical sources: myths, literature, and art. Based on M. Eliade’s concept of myth, the author shows that the every way of presenting hell in fantasy literature has its representations in a tradition of mythical hell’s spaces. The article highlights intertextual dialogue between contemporary fantasy novels and the first part of Dante Alighieri’s The Divine Comedy, Hell, which is a synthesis of folk and theological visions of hell. Further, in our analysis we also draw on a number of literary sources such as: The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe by C.S. Lewis; Memnoch the Devil by Anne Rice; Pan Lodowego Ogrodu (“The Ice Garden Master”) by Jarosław Grzędowicz; and Siewca Wiatru, (“Sower of the Wind”) by Maja Lidia Kossakowska. These and many other fantasy novels are examples of contemporary exploration of classical themes (descendit ad infernos).

Keywords: descent, fantasy literature, myth, inferno, katabasis, katharsis, fantasy literature, myth, inferno.

David Václavík

                                                MULTIDIMENSIONAL SECULARIZATION 

                                                    IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

The purpose of this article is to analyze and verify the so-called thesis of secularization in Central and Eastern European countries, and also to show that this part of Europe has already undergone different types and forms of secularization. Despite its popularity, the theory of secularization (also known as the thesis of secularization) has been the object of criticism for decades. Clearly, modern Western societies are based on the principle of separation between the Church and State, and thus, people do not experience direct “interference” of religion in their lives. Today, they can also choose from a variety of religions without fear that they will face persecution. The theory of secularization has met with four common objections. First, it is intrinsically weak in its logical structure. Second, recent sociological data contradict the thesis of a gradual disappearance of religions. Third, proliferation of alternative religiosity and so-called new religious movements, along with the emergence of new forms of religiosity in established churches, pose a major challenge to the thesis of secularization. And finally, religion is still considered the most powerful political force in the world, and when discussing the validity of secularization theory, this last objection is the most fundamental argument against the theory.

Keywords: secularization, modernization, Czech Republic, Central Europe, differentiation, transformation.


                                                                                Translated by Stanisław A. Wargacki


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