Наталия Бойчук, Типологические очерки сущностной феноменологии религии Макса Шелера.
Magdalena Grabowska, Uczucia a wiara w Boga. Obraz emocji w opisie doświadczenia wiary w Boga.
Svetlana G. Karassyova, Formation of religious studies in post-soviet Belarus.
Michał Łuczyński, Językowo-kulturowy obraz Mokoszy (próba rekonstrukcji).
Andrzej Migda, Elementy szamanizmu w pentekostalnej ekstazie mistycznej – przypadek Toda Bentleya.
Pavel Nosachev, Semiotical analysis of the hermetical text.
Darius Piwowarczyk, Europe, civilization – they are day flies; they will, in fact they must perish: Antimodern quasi-religious movements in the German Kaiserreich.
Artur Sobczyk, Gwatemalski kult Maximona/San Simona.
Monika Świątek-Ochmann, Filozofia ryzyka André Nehera. Ryzyko Boga, człowieka, świata.
Вита Титаренко, Сущностные и методологические проблемы религиеведческой экспертизы
w практическом религиеведении.
Larysa Vladychenko, Współczesna działalność oświatowa Kościoła katolickiego na terytorium Ukrainy.
TYPOLOGICAL LINES IN MAX SCHELER'S ESSENTIAL
PHENOMENOLOGY OF RELIGION
The article focuses on M. Scheler's philosophical and religious studies theory of religion and its phenomenological aspect. Based on a systematic methodological approach, the nature and specificity of M. Scheler's philosophy of religion is explored in reference to phenomenology in order to show its potential for modern Religious Studies. The author delineated the methodological potential of basic concepts and explored typological features of the essential phenomenology of religion. Much attention was paid to the concept of the relationship between Scheler’s vision of God and man. The axiological dimensions of religiosity, as well as the category of the sacred and the highest values were also discussed.
FEELINGS AND FAITH IN GOD. THE PICTURE OF EMOTIONS
IN THE DESCRIPTION OF THE EXPERIENCE OF FAITH IN GOD
In the paper, the author discusses the role of feelings in the experience of faith in God. The source material for this analysis is the research carried out among contemporary Christians representing different denominations and concerns their picture of faith in God. The article sheds light on various dimensions regarding the problem of the interplay between spirituality and emotionality. Among others, it aims to answer the questions of whether there is a place for emotions when experiencing spirituality and what sort of criteria to use in order to classify faith as a type of experience.
Svetlana G. Karassyova
FORMATION OF RELIGIOUS STUDIES IN POST-SOVIET BELARUS
The article traces the process of the institutional formation of Religious Studies as an academic subject and scientific discipline in the Republic of Belarus (1991–2011). It also presents the results and specifics of this endeavor, which are: defining Religious Studies as a scientific discipline and making it an obligatory subject in education; establishing the first centers for Religious Studies; and specialists accentuating the necessity of the discipline's development along with an increase of its social significance, even though religious knowledge is not socially required.
THE LINGUISTIC AND CULTURAL PICTURE OF THE MOKOSH
(AN ATTEMPT AT RECONSTRUCTION)
The article deals with the reconstruction of the Mokosh, one of the female deities in the Old-Slavic pagan pantheon, based on linguistic and cultural data. The sources used in the study include: historical sources and ethnographical accounts, archaeological findings, linguistic data and comparative mythology. The author attempts to reconstruct a fragment of the traditional spiritual culture of the Slavs.
SEMIOTIC ANALYSIS OF THE HERMETICAL TEXT
In the article, the methodology developed by well-known Italian semiotician Umberto Eco is used to analyze some classical texts of western esotericism. The idea of the so-called “hermetic semiosis” is explored by Eco in several of his works published after the 1980’s: Limits of interpretation, Kant e l’ornitorinco, Interpretation and Overinterpretation, Serendipities, Six Walks in the Fictional Woods, etc. Eco has his own view regarding the formation of the whole of esotericism, which was expressed in a special perception of esoteric texts. From this perspective, Eco’s works seem to be not only semiotical in their essence, but also touch on the history of religious ideas and on the hermeneutics of heterodox texts. As objects for the application of Eco’s theory, works by Guenon (Esoterism of Dante) and Fulcanelli (Mystery of the cathedrals) are used.
Darius J. Piwowarczyk
EUROPE, CIVILIZATION – THEY ARE DAY FLIES THEY WILL,
IN FACT, THEY MUST PERISH:
ANTIMODERN QUASI-RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS IN THE GERMAN KAISERREICH
At the turn of the nineteenth and twentieth century, Friedrich Diefenbach, Gusto Gräser and August Engelhardt – to name only three of a large number of other idealistically-minded social reformers active in the German Empire (Kaiserreich) and elsewhere in a rapidly industrializing and urbanizing Europe – proposed their conceptions about the “revitalization”of modern society, and indeed, all of humanity. The common denominator of their teachings was a call to return to the “original” state of mankind, understood primarily as reconciliation with Mother Nature through a radical rejection of the established social and religious norms. Considering a broader socio-historical context of European modernization, the author discusses the profiles and the theosophical/naturalistic systems of these forerunners of the twentieth-century hippie movement, and shortly characterizes the social experiments (communes) that resulted from their ideological principles.
GUATEMALAN CULT OF MAXIMON/SAN SIMON
The cult of Maximón, who is also called San Simon, is currently developing in Guatemala. The origins of this cult are to be seen in different traditions such as the old pre-Columbian religious conceptions, or folk Catholicism. Maximón's identity, together with his origin, is multithreaded. He happens to be identified with Catholic saints, local shamans or old Mayan deities. Different competences are assigned to Maximón. He is said to be particularly effective
in solving sexual and serious health problems. According to his followers' convictions, Maximón could also bring misfortune, both acting on someone’s request and as a punishment for their failure in worship. He also helps in all kinds of businesses, both legal and those related with the risk of falling into a dangerous trap. Maximón’s cult is still alive among many traditionally oriented Mayan communities. It is also gaining support among urban Latino communities within and outside of Guatemala. This cult is becoming an important element of the Guatemalan religious landscape.
ANDRE NAHER'S PHILOSOPHY OF RISK.
RISK FOR GOD, MAN AND THE WORLD
The new philosophy of risk comes from Jewish philosophy and mysticism with some panpsychism principles as a starting point. Its author is the French personalist, existentialist and phenomenologist, André Neher. He formulates his innovative look at risks as a normal and commonplace phenomenon, and as an indispensable small part of evil in the structure of good. Risk is discussed in the context of twentieth century theories of personalism, existentialism and phenomenology. The conclusion drawn from this version of the philosophy of risk is a praise of action and an incentive to take positive actions in spite of the risks involved.
THE INHERENT METHODOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF RELIGIOUS STUDIES
EXPERTISE IN THE PRACTICAL SCIENCE OF RELIGION
In the article, the basic definitions of Religious Studies expertise are discussed. Some features of the Religious Studies expertise in Ukraine, Russia and Belarus are analyzed. The necessity for updating the expert body as a condition for the effective work of professional staff in practical Religious Studies is postulated.
CONTEMPORARY ACTIVITIES OF THE CATHOLIC CHURCH
IN UKRAINE IN THE FIELD OF EDUCATION
The article reviews the current status and statistics of the Catholic Church in Ukraine. The author discusses the role of the Catholic Church in Ukraine in reference to the system of secondary and higher education at public and private schools. The author also presents some problematic aspects in the field of educational activities faced by religious organizations following the introduction of spirituality and morals as a subject of education. Other problems the Church has to deal with are the difficulties in establishing secondary schools, and the lack of recognition by the state of diplomas issued by Church institutions of higher education, etc. Additionally, the author analyzes legislative activities and proposals on the part of the Catholic Church aimed at eliminating difficulties in the development of religious education in modern Ukraine. As a result of these undertakings, some recommendations for further harmonious relations between the Church and State have been formulated.
Translated and edited by Stanisław A. Wargacki