Od redakcji (w XX-lecie istnienia pisma).
Kazimierz Banek, Krymczaki – grupa etniczna i religijna.
Jakub Bohuszewicz, Między etnografią i religioznawstwem: Åke Hultkrantz jako antropolog religii.
Екатерина Сергеевна Элбакян, Повседневность в мире религии, религия в мире повседневности.
Martin Fárek, Did Rammohan Ray Understand Western Religion?
Marcin Karas, Kobieta w mariawityzmie.
Martin Klapetek, Czy nowoczesna islamska architektura jest częścią europejskiej przestrzeni
Monika Kowalska, Rola kota w rytuałach magicznych i wierzeniach ludzi różnych epok i miejsc.
Agata Świerzowska, Joga chrześcijańska . Próba opisu na wybranych przykładach.
Marek Żyromski, Jerzy Hatłas, The Religious Cult of Ruler in Ancient Rome as the Element of Process of Legitimacy of Political Power in Autocratic Political Systems.
ARTYKUŁY POLEMICZNE, RECENZJE, SPRAWOZDANIA
Anna Radziwiłł, Pelazgowie a Hellada.
Przemysław Biernat, Złote tabliczki orfickie.
Marcin Karas, Braviarium fidei . Wybór doktrynalnych wypowiedzi Kościoła.
Anna Książek, Ends and Beginnings: X Konferencja EASR w Sztokholmie.
THE KRYMCHAKS – AN ETHNICAL AND RELGIOUS GROUP OF PEOPLE
The Krymchaks are a small group of people living in the Crimea from at least the 1st century AD. They had been living in Crimea later than natives of the region (e.g., the Cimmerians and the Tauri), but before other incoming peoples (i.e., the Khazars, the Alans, the Goths, the Ruthenians). It appears these people began to call themselves the Krymchaks only in the 13th century, when the Mongols appeared there. Their ethnogeny has not been fully elucidated, however, as a distinct ethnic group they are placed into the 6th or 8th century. Indeed, they are a mixture of different people living in the Crimea since antiquity and united by a common language and religion. The Krymchaks consider themselves to be followers of Judaism and, they speak the Chagatai language. Both the Mongols and later the Russians (and the Germans during World War II) often identified the Krymchaks with the Jews and used repressive measures against them. Despite all these ordeals, the Krymchaks have survived to this day, and their population is estimated at 2,500–3,500 people, of whom around 600 live in the Crimea.
BETWEEN ETNOGRAPHY AND RELIGOUS STUDIES:
AKE HULTKRANTZ AS ANTHROPOLOGIST OF RELIGION
The article concerns with the methodological aspect of the works of Åke Hultkrantz (1920–2006), a distinguished Swedish comparative religion scholar, who in his scholarly research drew on phenomenology, ethnology and ecology of religion. In his book Native Religions of North America Hultkrantz while discussing the relationship between beliefritual system and the environment, engages in polemics with the diffusionists. At the same time, this approach is an intermediate stage of his research process, the ultimate goal of which is a phenomenological description of religious ideas characteristic of the shamanic systems of hunter-gatherers. The use of the latter approach is based on the concept of ideal types used within the phenomenology of religion, providing the basis for the cross-cultural comparisons. The combined use of the two research strategies: ecology and phenomenology of religion, enables one to formulate important conclusions about the universal nature of shamanism, essentially based on the concept of duality of souls and their close relationships with the animal world. This conclusion is also the counter-argument to the concept developed by those researchers of shamanism, who – like S.M. Shirokogoroff, A. Leena- Siikala or Roberte N. Hamayon – emphasize only the Siberian nature of the phenomenon.
Ekaterina Sergeyevna Elbakyan
RELIGION IN EVERYDAY LIFE AND EVERYDAY LIFE IN RELIGION
The purpose of this article is to discuss, on the one hand, the role of religion in everyday life encompassing values, norms, relationships of an individual from the moment of his birth to death, and on the other hand, how peoples’ everyday life activities, including personal tragedies and social catastrophes affect religious changes. The discussion on the relationship between daily life and religion is carried out with reference to Max Weber, who emphasized their interdependence. Hence, the key issues discussed are: “routinization of charisma, dogmatization, clericalism, secularization and sacralization.
DID RAMMOHAN RAY UNDERSTAND WESTERN RELIGION?
The religious thought and activities of Rammohan Ray (1772–1833) have been the points of controversy among scholars for many decades. In his research on religion Rammohan Ray took a difficult “middle path,” attempting to reconcile Western Christianity and domestic Hinduism. Following the analyses of S.N. Balagangadhara and Jakob De Roover, the author of this article argues that this Bengali reformer did not fully understand Western religious ideas. These shortcomings, however, should not be viewed as an obstacle to intercultural understanding. The author concludes that Rammohan Ray’s distortions of Western ideas result from religious traditions of India, where practices do not necessarily express the beliefs of the people.
A WOMAN IN THE MARIAVITE CHURCH
The article discusses aspects in the doctrines of the Mariavite Church that refer to a woman. These issues are presented in chronological order, beginning with the inception of this religious movement, through its development and internal divisions, up to the present day. The role and place of a woman in the Mariavite Church is an important tenet of this religious community founded, by Maria Franciszka Kozłowska and Jan M. Michał Kowalski. Some basic knowledge and understanding, on the side of the reader, about this religious group is presumed, however.
IS CONTEMPORARY ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE
A PART OF THE EUROPEAN PUBLIC SPACE?
The article attempts to answer whether the construction of mosques in Europe (for example in Germany, Austria and Switzerland) is a visible sign of emancipation of Muslim religious communities. In many places in Europe (e.g., Switzerland) the building of Mosques creates social tensions and generates negative reactions among the majority of non-Muslim communities.
The architectural design of mosques is an integral part of public space, but at the same time, these tensions illustrate how complicated the integration process for both sides can be. The choice of forms of buildings inspired by the cultural background of immigrants, or the current general trends in architecture, express the level of integration of Muslim communities into Western societies. An important part of this article is the issue of preservation and transformation of the European Muslims’ identity as they integrate or isolate themselves into European societies.
THE ROLE OF CAT IN MAGICAL RITUALS AND BELIEFS OF PEOPLE
IN DIFFERENT EPOCHS AND PLACES
The article discusses the role and the symbolism of cat in various religious beliefs and rituals. The key question is how peoples’ perception of a cat has been changing depending on their time and place? The paper presents examples of rituals, beliefs and superstitions associated with the cat from antiquity to modern times in different times and places around the world (inter alia Cuba, Japan, and Egypt). In addition to mythological, religious, and magical themes the author also discusses the cats’ motif in fantasy literature, and in popular culture. Comparison of the positive and negative aspects of this animal is the red thread of the paper.
PELASGIANS AND THE ANCIENT GREECE
The article is a review of a long-awaited book on Pelasgians entitled Pelazgowie – autochtoni Hellady. Pochodzenie, język, religia by Ignacy Ryszard Danka. The Pelasgians were the Indo-European people of ancient Greece, speaking a Paleo-Balkan dialect that is cognate with the Thracian language. As the original people of the Peloponnesus, the Pelasgians have become mythical ancestors of the Greeks, who called them “autochthons”. In terms of religion, the Pelasgians worshiped chthonic deities, but also, sky god cults were common among them. Several gods of the ancient Greeks were in fact of Pelasgian origin. The reviewed book is a crowning achievement of 40 years of Danka’s research, and presents a valuable source of information for those who are researchers of the history, language and religion of ancient Greece. It is worth noting that the Pelasgians have become the mythical ancestors of the Greeks, and Pelasgos was even considered to be the progenitor of humankind.
CHRISTIAN YOGA: AN ATTEMPT AT DESCRIPTION
BASED ON SELECTED EXAMPLES
In the West the term Christian yoga evokes many radical controversies. Some believe in the possibility of placing yoga (usually perceived as a set of physical practices) within a Christian context, and would like to see it as a helpful tool for deepening of spiritual life. Others, however, maintain that yoga and Christian tradition are not compatible. Still, there are people who intend to combine these two spiritual traditions by adopting randomly selected elements from both. The paper presents and explains the first, and so far, the most comprehensive system of Christian Yoga as developed by a French Benedictine monk Jean-Marie Dechanet. In 1955 Dechanet published his first book – La Voie du Silence developing the philosophy of Christian Yoga, which is, in fact, the interpretation of yoga system in the light of Origen’s philosophy of human being. The fundamental concepts of Dechanet’s system are: anima-corpus, animus-mens and spiritus-cor. Establishing and maintaining harmonious relationship between them is the fundamental aim of Christian Yoga. On the basis of Dechanet’s thought, the author of this paper explores also some new approaches to Christian yoga.
Marek Żyromski, Jerzy Hatłas
THE RELIGIOUS CULT OF RULER IN ANCIENT ROME
AS THE ELEMENT OF PROCESS OF LEGITIMACY OF POLITICAL
POWER IN AUTOCRATIC POLITICAL SYSTEMS
The article deals with a question of how important for any ruling system is the gaining of (and sometimes even losing) political legitimacy. This problem is important not only in the case of democratic political systems, but also in the case of autocratic or totalitarian political systems, because in principle, such regimes do not typically come to power in a legitimate way. In ancient Rome, for example, Octavianus Augustus gained his highest position as a result of a long and bloody civil war, finished with the naval victory near Actium. Moreover, he successfully initiated the new political regime (so called the Principate or early Roman Empire), based on an interconnection between autocratic power of the Princeps and the old Republican facade. Indeed, the desire for peace (Pax Romana) was a dominant feeling among the population of the vast Roman Empire, and they accepted this transition. The altar Ara Pacis Augustae, for instance, is an expression of the people’s gratitude at the end of longterm warfare. Also, very important were many imperial ceremonies and monuments that followed, such as triumphal arches, columns and so on. These monuments portrayed the Emperor as a successful military and political leader, and strengthened not only his ruling authority but the legitimacy of power as well.